Woodbury Makerspace Plan

Woodbury Makerspace Business Plan

Newland Cooperative, Minnesota

by Lyno Sullivan, Founder and President

MISSION STATEMENT

coopnesting

Utilizing Minnesota’s Newland Cooperative system capabilities, we enable 3D model designers, sculptors, artists, and 3D product idea people. We do this by consistently providing co-operatively owned spaces in Woodbury, Minnesota, filled with high quality classic, multi-color, and exotic material 3D prototype printing tools and services. We apply principles of time investor co-operative workforces, to bring idea people together with producer people, who together, invest time developing an idea and bringing it to market. The principles are that time investment hours and capital investments are repaid from sales. Excess sales income spreads to nearby coops to help them bring their new ideas to fruition. Product royalties provide an incentive for time investors in a Newland chartered virtual coop.

 

A simple motivation is the opportunity to work with people teaching and learning in a cooperative environment. Professionals and students meeting one another in low-key learning environment. Local professionals get to assist up-and-coming professionals, some of whom seek internships, scholarships, mentors, to become a mentor, and so forth. These incentives attract time investors and capital investors, investing today and sharing future rewards fairly among coop members. The excess goes back to the coop community, so that other idea people might get a leg up with their ideas.

 

Newland Cooperative hosts each Makerspace co-operative. In the manner of a franchise operations, once a Newland hosted idea cooperative becomes operational it may be spun-off into an independent gross income, small share royalty paying affiliate. Its sales and royalty income is distributed to its coop members, based somewhat on their time investment. This royalty compensates the DevOps team who support the open source systems that each virtual coop uses upon the internet and personal devices.

 

SUMMARY

 

A makerspace is a place where customers go to design digital 3D models created in software like Autodesk 123A, which is free for download, or professional grade software like SolidWorks and 360 Fusion, or a host of alternatives. In-house software converts models into automated printer control commands. 3D prototypes are printed in various materials like plastics, carbon fiber, Kevlar®, composite plastics with materials like metals and experimental materials capable of withstanding extreme loads and pressures. The 3D printing process uses plastic filament, input at melting temperatures of around 250 C.

 

PROBLEM STATEMENT

 

We do 3D printing. Who is our customer? Why do they frequent our virtual coops? Why do they frequent our Makerspace physical coop facilities, warehouses, and databases? Why do they continue to pay their membership fee month after month?

 

We operate initially as a virtual coop within the physical coop named Newland Cooperative as registered in Minnesota. Once our Makerspace coop becomes commercially viable, we may want to become our own independent company, albeit endowed with an initial starting set of articles, bylaws, and workflow processes from its parent and ancestral coops. This behavior is referred to as “incubation and emergence” phases. From your idea, a new company is born, in some incorporated form. It pays royalties back to its parent company and to the Newland Cooperative. Every community in Minnesota will want to create their own makerspaces so their young have a place to learn.

 

SECURITY AWARENESS

 

We bring idea and production people together in a security conscious, mutually supportive virtual cooperative. Our workflow keeps drawings, documents, and digital materials separated by customer member, and virtual coop accounts. The premises used by our members receives commercial security services.

 

It is important that members and customers know that their prototypes receive security protection. All members sign an NDA concerning any prototypes in any workflow. Security systems abound throughout the premises including location tracking by means optional existence and location tracking chips embedded within some printed 3D products. Security camera footage of outside and inside is provided. The Makerspace facilities are secured with commercial electronics access controls and tracking databases.

 

CASE STUDY: ARTISTS, SCULPTORS, 3D CREATORS

 

Do you have a hobby that involves making stuff with your hands? Artist kinds of stuff; sculpture, pottery, or woodworking; making stuff that persists. Gift card parts. Rubber stamp designs with your 3D art on the face. Plastic toys. 3D color sculpture in exotic materials; artifacts; reproductions.

 

CASE STUDY: IDEA PERSON

 

Are you an idea person? Do you ever have ideas for 3D objects that might be patentable? Want to experiment with lightweight plastic products, some stronger than steel. Need access to simple materials testing capabilities? Want to know how many tons of force it takes to crush a carbon fiber reinforced plastic toy? All useful stuff if you are experimenting with materials.

 

If you have a need for a prototype, model, or finished 3D product, what do you do? Where do go? ANSWER: You go to a nearby Newland Makerspace 3D printing shop. Bring your memory stick containing your 3D model of own designed creation. Or use one from out catalog of 3D printable products provided by our royalty receiving members. We can print of up to 4 copies on the spot, if the customer chooses to hang for a while. Products can be printed overnight.

 

CASE STUDY: PRODUCER

 

When seeking a continuing membership in Makerspace, professionals, artisans, hobbyists and students, will frequent the Makerspace website to establish their identity with a scan of their state issued ID card. That gains them entrance to the backroom premises.

 

Every member must read a Non-Disclosure Agreement (NDA) and sign it. Time accounting is done through the website. Designs needing printing can be submitted via the website. They will be placed into the work queue. Going to the warehouse personally with your memory stick is the most secure way to do your 3D print setup.

 

WORK IN MAKERSPACE

 

All inside and outside spaces except bathrooms are under video and audio surveillance. The warehouse facility requires a member to insert their state issued photo ID scanner. The warehouse is like a laboratory and production shop. The facility is heavily secured to prevent theft of prototype designs.

 

SPREADSHEET RESULTS

makerspace-1st-year-budget

The spreadsheet shows a cost of $1.25 per square foot per month turns the light. Research into space in a safe commercial park found one perfect 2400 ft2 that is currently one space now which can be divided in half. The entire space has a conference area for twelve, a public facing glass walled “laboratory” like space, two joined spaces, each with a human door and a twelve foot garage door.

 

SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL

 

Newland Cooperative

 

The Newland Cooperative is established under Chapter 308B. Cooperative Associations statute. Within Newland Cooperative a separate entity with these components

 

  1. Makerspace Coop (a virtual Coop) is established as a board sub-committee under a Charter, within Newland Cooperative, during idea incubation phase. Members of Newland Cooperative may be eligible to sign the Makerspace Coop Non-Disclosure Agreement and join the Coop, subject to the approval of the existing members. After the incubation phase the Coop will be spun off into its LLC, S Corp, C Corp, etc. The spin-off pays a royalty to Newland Cooperative.
  2. Makerspace Fund is established to track all money. Transparent transaction detail is available to members of the Coop. Transparent balance sheet information is available to other Coops and to Newland Cooperative accountants, auditors, tax authorities, et al.
  3. Makerspace Coop members invest time which will be repaid from future income in the manner specified in the Makerspace Coop Charter. A royalty on gross income is paid to Newland Cooperative. Up to 60% of unreserved net income can be directed to capital investors of the Newland Cooperative. The remainder of profit is available for other expenses and patronage to the for the time investors.

 

3D Printer Options

 

$2,000 FORMBOT T-Rex 2 https://www.aliexpress.com/store/product/Formbot-T-Rex-Large-3D-Printer-with-400x400x450mm-Build-Size/2061058_32616252202.html

3d-printer-formbot-t-rex-2

 

$5,000 RoVa4D http://www.ordsolutions.com/rova4d-full-color-blender-3d-printer-pre-order/

3d-rova4d-full-color-blender-3d-printer

 

Poverty Solutions

povertysolutionadvances

POVERTY SOLUTION: At zero percent interest rate, advance humans the money necessary to pay their bills on time. Recover these advances from their future income.

Imagine someone claiming their aspiration to be “when I grow up I want to be poor”. Yet seventy percent of the poor remain poor. An expected answer would have been “when I grow up I want to be rich”. Four percent do so. The remaining make it into the middle class. The current picture looks bleak for the poor.

  • Making it into the middle class” concludes that 70% of those who grow up poor remain poor; 26% made it into the middle class and 4% became high earners;
  • Why rich kids become rich adults and poor kids become poor adults” says that
    • the environment one is raised in determines their economic mobility
    • 4 percent of children from low-income families achieved a college education, compared to 45 percent of children from higher-income families
    • low-income families focus on immediate needs, such as food and transportation, rich families invest more on future-oriented purchases that will ensure their well being
    • upon graduation, when more affluent students are substantially more likely to enter the workforce with little to no student debt. For less-affluent graduates, chains of student loan debt weigh down any chance of wealth accumulation
  • US Poverty Rate is Still 14.5%; But Yes, The War On Poverty Worked” explains that the poverty rate is down from 19%, when President Johnson’s “War of Poverty” began, remains steady now, year over year, at 14.5%. The rate does not take into account the trillion dollars spent on means tested programs each year. That money is not counted as income to the poor. It is important to look behind the numbers. Today’s poverty measurement is more like the number of people who would be in poverty if government weren’t going to help them.
  • Measuring opinion, according to a 2013 Pew Research report “Americans see growing gap between rich and poor”. The poll measured polling sentiment. Democrats said by a 61% to 24% margin that circumstances beyond their control were primarily to blame for them being poor. Republicans took the opposite view: 57% blamed individuals who were poor for lack of effort compared with 28% who said it was due to circumstances beyond their control. That is quite an ideological divide.

 

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Why Choose Co-operative Model

Why Choose a Co-operative Business Model?

A co-operative (also known as co-op, cooperative or coop) is a type of corporation which is an autonomous association of people united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled business.

Co-operatives are based on the values of self-help, self-responsibility, democracy, equality, equity and solidarity. In the tradition of their founders, co-operative members believe in the ethical values of honesty, openness, social responsibility and caring for others.

Newland Co-operative MISSION: We enable idea people by consistently providing the highest quality tools and services for superior quality co-operative development. We empower each co-operative workforce by ensuring income opportunity and organizational governance.

The_co-operative_cropped

Choose Your Business Structure

The Small Business Administration provides guidance on “Starting a Business”.

The business structure you choose will have legal and tax implications. Learn about the different types of business structures and find the one best suited for your business.

Sole Proprietorship

A sole proprietorship is the most basic type of business to establish. You alone own the company and are responsible for its assets and liabilities.

Limited Liability Company

An LLC is designed to provide the limited liability features of a corporation and the tax efficiencies and operational flexibility of a partnership.

Cooperative

People form cooperatives to meet a collective need or to provide a service that benefits all member-owners.

Corporation

A corporation is more complex and generally suggested for larger, established companies with multiple employees.

Partnership

There are several different types of partnerships, which depend on the nature of the arrangement and partner responsibility for the business.

S Corporation

An S corporation is similar to a C corporation but you are taxed only on the personal level.

Co-operative Core Principles

Cooperatives around the world generally operate according to the same core principles and values, adopted by the International Cooperative Alliance in 1995. The International Cooperative Alliance is a global membership association of co-ops and co-op support organizations.

The co-operative principles are guidelines by which co-operatives put their values into practice.

Voluntary and Open Membership

Co-operatives are voluntary organizations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership, without gender, social, racial, political or religious discrimination.

Democratic Member Control

Co-operatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting their policies and making decisions. Men and women serving as elected representatives are accountable to the membership. In primary co-operatives members have equal voting rights (one member, one vote) and co-operatives at other levels are also organized in a democratic manner.

Member Economic Participation

Members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their co-operative. At least part of that capital is usually the common property of the co-operative. Members usually receive limited compensation, if any, on capital subscribed as a condition of membership. Members allocate surpluses for any or all of the following purposes: developing their co-operative, possibly by setting up reserves, part of which at least would be indivisible; benefiting members in proportion to their transactions with the co-operative; and supporting other activities approved by the membership.

Autonomy and Independence

Co-operatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members. If they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, or raise capital from external sources, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their co-operative autonomy.

Education, Training and Information

Co-operatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers, and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their co-operatives. They inform the general public – particularly young people and opinion leaders – about the nature and benefits of co-operation.

Co-operation among Co-operatives

Co-operatives serve their members most effectively and strengthen the co-operative movement by working together through local, national, regional and international structures.

Concern for Community

Co-operatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies approved by their members.

Co-operative Best Practice

There is a growing body of literature on best practices of businesses based upon the co-operative business model. These practices cover several areas. Within the United States, by the constitutional separation of powers doctrine, cooperative law is the purview of the states. Minnesota law. The laws provide standardized solutions usable by a starting co-operative. Within these laws co-operatives are granted broad powers.

Governance

Management and direction of a cooperative is both an art and a science. Ultimate power is vested in the one member equals one vote democracy. The day to day management decisions are handled by the elected board of directors. Strategic direction setting may be the responsibility of board, which is subject to refinement by the membership.

The Newland™ business model provides the LivingVote™ process, as a primary direction setting technique, used by the members to provide the framework for day to day operations.

The stakes have never been higher for cooperatives. They operate in a business environment with less margin for error. As cooperatives grow larger and face increasing internal and market complexity, the critical factors for their success must be continually re-examined.

The most successful cooperatives develop a culture for continuous learning.  Managers and board members must understand the on-going need for knowledge and information.  It is human nature to operate in our comfort zone.  However, new technologies, or changes in the political, regulatory or farming environment may have major implications for future operations.  The best cooperatives identify information gaps and develop strategies to address them.  The annual strategic planning session is an ideal time to consider what you don’t know.

A final factor in cooperative governance is balancing returns at the firm and member level.  Managers and boards focus on the bottom line and balance sheet strength.  Members often focus on prices, service and equity retirement.  Cooperatives must not only maintain this balancing act but also communicate the multiple dimensions of successful performance to their members.

Minnesota Cooperative Statutes Chapters

Minnesota has two sets of statures pertaining to co-operatives. Some definitions are necessary.

308B.005 DEFINITIONS.

Subd. 5.Association. “Association” means an organization conducting business on a cooperative plan under the laws of this state or another state that is chartered to conduct business under other laws of this state or another state.

Subd. 15.Member. “Member” means a person or entity reflected on the books of the cooperative as the owner of governance rights of a membership interest of the cooperative and includes patron and nonpatron members.

Subd. 19.Nonpatron membership interest. “Nonpatron membership interest” means a membership interest that does not require the holder to conduct patronage business for or with the cooperative to receive financial rights or distributions.

Subd. 20.Patron. “Patron” means a person or entity who conducts patronage business with the cooperative.

Subd. 21.Patronage. “Patronage” means business, transactions, or services done for or with the cooperative as defined by the cooperative.

Subd. 22.Patron member. “Patron member” means a member holding a patron membership interest.

Subd. 23.Patron membership interest. “Patron membership interest” means the membership interest requiring the holder to conduct patronage business for or with the cooperative, as specified by the cooperative to receive financial rights or distributions.

Chapter 308A Cooperatives statutes pertain to a cooperative formed and incorporated on a cooperative plan for the purpose of conducting an agricultural, dairy, marketing, transportation, warehousing, commission, contracting, building, mining, telephone, manufacturing, mechanical, mercantile, electrical, heat, light, or power business, or for any combination of these purposes or for any other lawful purpose.

Chapter 308B Cooperative Associations statutes pertain to a cooperative formed and organized on a cooperative plan for any lawful purpose, including: (1) to market, process, or otherwise change the form or marketability of products, including crops, livestock, and other agricultural products, the manufacturing and further processing of those products, other purposes that are necessary or convenient to facilitate the production or marketing of products by patron members and others, and other purposes that are related to the business of the cooperative; (2) to provide products, supplies, and services to its members; and (3) for any other purposes that cooperatives are authorized to perform by law.

Minnesota’s Newland Co-operative chose Chapter 308B organization for several reasons, including 308B.601 MEMBERSHIP INTERESTS and in particular, Subd. 3.Patron membership interests. The patron membership interests collectively shall have not less than 60 percent of the cooperative’s financial rights to profit allocations and distributions. If authorized in the original articles as filed, or articles or bylaws adopted by an affirmative vote of the patron members, or the articles or bylaws are amended by the affirmative vote of patron members, then the cooperative’s financial rights to profit allocations and distributions to patron members collectively may be not less than 15 percent.

Subd. 5.Nonpatron membership interests. If authorized by the articles, the cooperative may solicit and issue nonpatron membership interests … distributions shall be made on the basis of value of the capital contributions of the patron membership interests collectively and the nonpatron membership interests to the extent the contributions have been accepted by the cooperative.

Patron and Nonpatron Membership Interests in Newland Co-operative

Minnesota’s Newland Cooperative filed the minimalist business organization charter required by law. Everything else is subjected to the LivingVote™ decisions in the bylaws. With this fact in mind, the bylaws speak to all matters of patrons and nonpatrons.

“Patron membership interests” are established for time investors who provide services. Necessary expenses, as established in the bylaws, which are approved by the board, may be reimbursed.

“Nonpatron membership interest” is reserved for capital investors.

What Is a Co-operative?

Co-operatives put people at the center of their business and not capital. Co-operatives can be defined in terms of three basic interests: ownership, control, and beneficiary. In a co-operative all three interests are vested directly in the hands of the user. Some co-operatives are designed to produce a profit. Profits are distributed back to the members in the form of patronage.  Since the owners of a co-op are also the customers, lowered prices and extra services are acceptable, instead of profits.

The International Cooperative Alliance defines a cooperative as “an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise.”

Typical Kinds of Cooperatives

There are several types of cooperatives based upon their business model. Within each business mode, products and services vary.

Consumer Cooperative

With buyer’s co-ops, people who shop at a store are members, they pay a fee to be a member which essentially buys them a ‘share’ of the co-op. The benefits of this type of co-op for the members are usually either (a) lower prices for products (b) specific control of the types of products offered. For example, you might start an internet co-op to bring broadband to a rural area where it otherwise wouldn’t be affordable enough for a single person to pay the costs. Buyer’s co-ops can take other forms; for example, ACE Hardware is a co-op, but it’s an owner’s buyer’s co-op; all owners of ACE Hardware stores are owners of the co-op, and use it to buy goods collectively.

Worker Cooperative

With worker’s co-ops, the workers are the beneficiaries of the co-op structure. Sometimes the workers will have to invest money if they join an established co-op, but more often than not, the workers are the founders of the co-op and are invested in ways that aren’t just monetary. The main benefit of this structure is that it enables the workers to set business policy. These co-ops are often collectives at a small level, but may adopt more hierarchical structures as they get bigger.

Producer Cooperative

With producer co-ops like Minnesota’s Newland Co-operative, the patron and non-patron member benefits form a hybrid cooperative with elements of time investment and capital investment membership interests. The basic principle is simple. Capital investment members are repaid their principal and then a share in downstream income, providing optional time limited return on capital investment. Once fully repaid, a capital investor may be convertible to a time investor.

Major Movie Co-operative

When a Producer Co-operative takes on a task, like a major movie, they will assign sub-projects to time investors within subsidiary co-operatives, nested to any desired degrees of sensibility. Each sub-cooperative takes its place among all the pipelines through which product improvements flow. Such a project would involve hundreds of union-based co-operatives filled with thousands of workers trained to the individual time investment areas.

Union Associated Co-operative

Union associated co-operative means that all union dues are paid and all votes are taken.

Multiplier Hourly Rate $US Purpose
1/4 x $6 per hour $6 allowance for one documented hour of time investment recorded
1/2 x $12 per hour for Journeyman’s grade assessment $12 study reward rate for documented time investment records grades in academic school of union sponsored apprentice trade school
2/3x $18 per hour for great grades in college or trade school $18 for adults who are at least 18 years old and working for completion of a bachelors academic degree
2/3x $18 per hour supervised time investment $18 for adults in supervised time investment schooling to journeyman level in one trade.
1x $24 22-29 years old
1.5x $36 30+ skilled
2x $48 40+ year old master level by education experience, or age

Time Investment Royalty Distribution

In the final toll, each workers time investment is paid for as a share of the net profit. In a billion dollar move that could divide the income fairly at the base hourly rate for journeyman class worker or college graduate is the (1x) rate of $24 per in for U.S. workers, $3 per hour in Malaysia. And so it goes for every local bank-note currency, national currency, digital currency, hard currency, and so forth. All of it only becomes payable and taxable at profit distribution time. It is scaled to the local economy. This stabilizes the Newland™ economy.

References

Cultivate.Coop is a library of information about cooperatives. Everything is created by and for people who work in co-ops. You can edit and upload content to Cultivate.coop just like Wikipedia. Cultivate.coop is also home to the Cooperative Education Network, a group of practitioners developing a centralized collection of materials on co-op education. The article Starting a Co-operative is comprehensive and well worth studying.
The U.S. Small Business Administration has delivered millions of loans, loan guarantees, contracts, counseling sessions and other forms of assistance to small businesses. See Choose Your Business Structure for information about co-operatives.

The article Expert advice: How to start up a co-operative contains tips from experts, gathered during a live Q&A. It clears up terminology and provides principles useful in deciding start-up issues.

References

The co-operative photo: This is Money website.

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LivingVote Governance

Life in a LivingVote™ World

130 Cooperative Living Vote

A LivingVote™ governed society, assures humans of the reality, that their LivingVote choice, on some bylaws governance item, really counts. Their vote must count from the moment they first establish they first establish their starting YES setting, on a scale from zero percent to one hundred percent. Voters will watch the aggregate vote patterns change, as they refine their choice. Watching constitutions, laws, agency rules, environmental limits changing, in near real time; it will become the new Reality show.

Once the aggregate vote stabilizes, for some predetermined interval of time, the  governance item is locked in and sent to quality control where all illogical governance wording gets backed out and figured out later. Anything holding up the arrival of the expected wording gets moved aside. There’s songs could be written about the urgency of keeping the Constitution and Laws of the United States of America moving. Maybe these wording changes can someday happen so fast that Watson can be a phone call away with the answer.

Watson can manage the Deltas. The only way to repair wording is to repair all necessary parts simultaneously. Back comes new wording that replaces in its entirety the set of illogical wording. Eventually the whole set of wording passes it final quality assurance test. Then the new set of wording takes effect at once. With a continuous integration and continuous deployment, known as a CI/CD pipeline, the automated rules of the Senate, House, and Governor all understand.

Maybe we’ll let a bunch of IBM Watson like computers mutually agree to have the final say, on the entire package of Governance being deployed live into to Production. Once passed the words take effect.  For so long as voters live. they can change their vote on any governance item at any time. When they die, their vote no longer affects governance. It all gets factored in. It is ultimately the will We the People, who must decide these matters, that really count.

Bifurcation Vote

070 Bifurcation Vote

The traditional way of voting is to make the decision once and for all times and be done with it. Changing the governance item requires another vote on the wording changes.

A LivingVote Governance Item

080 LivingVote

Think how much more effective governance becomes when a coop, corporation, business cost center, project, family business, social club, church, or some other social organization utilizes the LivingVote™ governance means.

LivingVote Governance Changes

090 LivingVote Fluctuations

Excerpts from “Newland 2084”

Within the human behavioral constraints imposed directly or indirectly, by layer upon layer of government, humans are free to enjoy what remains of their privileges, rights, and freedoms. Within the constraints of imposed by government, the co-operative LivingVote™ represents the new art of governance. The LivingVote™ is the preferred decision-making process for matters of basic human affairs, as well as affairs of the polygons, cooperatives, clubs, families, and so forth. The LivingVote™ behavioral pattern is embedded within the startup Newland™ Co-operative behavioral pattern.

A Newland ™ Co-operative is owned and operated by its members. The operational characteristics of every Newland Co-operative are established and adjusted according to the ongoing and evolving LivingVote™. The LivingVote™ represents an emergence behavioral model. Rather than behavioral constraints being handed down from above, in the manner of a command and control hierarchical decision-making process, the LivingVote™ embodies the principles of power and control bubbling up and emerging from below. Every human feels like they have a direct say in matters of every Newland™ Cooperative of which they are a member.

Because Newland™ Member Agreement terms and conditions attain an 80 percent Pass LivingVote™, these conditions will require the corresponding 80 percent Fail LivingVote™ to be changed. This stabilizing characteristic of the LivingVote™ allows Newland™ to better fend off the vagaries of fads faction politics. Political parties have the power in the form of political governance known in ancient times as a Republic. Newland™ Co-operative governance is known in modern times as LivingVote™ Democracy. While it would have been possible to utilize a LivingVote™ governance model in ancient times, it is made practical in modern times with the advent of modern technology such as computers. It is the combination of NetZero™ closed funds established and maintained by the LivingVote™ that is the game changer in civilized society.

Pertaining to co-operatives, anyone wishing to receive any royalty income distribution must participate in all of the LivingVote™ matters put before the membership. The Newland™ Distribution Engine talks with the LivingVote™ Engine, and distributions are bypassed for so long as the LivingVote™ decisions have not been made. There is no such capability as “catching up” on benefits not received. Any member who believes their LivingVote™ choice, concerning any matter, must be changed simply changes their LivingVote™. If enough members change their vote from Yes to No, then the matter switches from Pass to Fail. Even the terms and conditions agreed to within the Newland™ Member Agreement document may change over time.

Likewise, the terms of the and conditions of the Newland™ License may be changed by new, modified, or deleted words changed by the LivingVote™ results on the question. This book, Newland 2084, explains a preferred embodiment among alternatives.

Conclusion

The mechanics of how the LivingVote operates is simple to understand. The social and business impacts may take days, weeks, or months to emerge. These matters are discussed in more detail in the book “Newland 2084” by Lyno.

by Lyno, Saturday, June 25, 2016

 

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methanogenesis

Methanogen Bacteria Eat Carbon Dioxide

 

0010bc_methanogenesis

Upon consequential matters, like the questions of human caused global warming, by means of carbon-dioxide, humans are well advised to double check the facts. They must always be willing to rearrange the words they repeat, based upon the best information determined to be true. One day, Oliver proclaimed “methanogen bacteria eat carbon dioxide”. He was known throw out a few well distilled words, carefully devised to elicit an implicit rhetorical answer. His subsequent comprehensive explanation included facts.

What Causes Global Warming

Some well intentioned humans believe that carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is the major cause of global warming. They have well rehearsed explanations of why. The truth is more complex. The truth is that there are many factors affecting overall seasonal average climate changes.

  • carbon dioxide is a contributor to climate warming
  • plate tectonics affect ocean warming
  • solar cycles affect land, water, and ocean temperature
  • as water temperature rises, increased evaporation raises the level of relative humidity in the air
  • increased humidity in the atmosphere leads to more rain and snow
  • long term increases of humidity in the atmosphere promote the growth of plants, mushrooms, trees, grasses, and such
  • humidity in the air allows carbon dioxide breathing plants to reproduce and grow more quickly, which removes more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere
  • upon earth there are many kinds of carbon dioxide eating organisms, from organisms the size of bacteria up to the size of trees the height of a Redwood, all eating carbon dioxide
  • among those organisms eating carbon-dioxide for nutrition, they are of two primary kinds.
    • aerobic organisms produce oxygen
    • anaerobic organisms produce methane
  • in essence, methanogen bacteria eat carbon dioxide and excrete methane gas

Forestry

One of the best ways to eat carbon dioxide is to plant lots of trees. In “Newland 2084” the whole matter of planting trees is handled by teams of urban and rural high school teens. As part of their required community service hours, adult supervised teams of teen gather for the summer to clear pedestrian and equine trails, plant trees, and generally improve and repair human interaction with forests. Electric vehicles may be used to move camp, deal with emergencies, and so forth. Because of the risk of starting fires, internal combustion vehicles are prohibited in recreational forests.

Teams of high school and college teens are sent into the woods to camp out and invest time planting trees and other vegetation. The funds necessary to hire the teens are payed by the oil companies, based on a per oil barrel mile tax. Every teen without exception invests their summers in community service, militia duty, CPR, first aid, cooking, and a host of skills best learned by humans tromping about on well groomed trails winding through well groomed forests.

No two teens from the same family, neighborhood, gang, or some similar affiliation may serve together on the same team. Each dual verified skill receives a certificate of competency added to the Newland™ Resume.

Agriculture

Plants produce oxygen and various complex byproduct gaseous odors, serving various purposes. The former being the gas of life and the latter, its perfume. The entire point being that plants eat carbon dioxide. Plants eat the carbon and excrete oxygen.

by Lyno, Friday, June 24, 2016

 

DME_Industry

DME Industry

The DME Industry is the petrochemical backbone of Newland™. DME is the safest high pressure HxCyOz gas for transport gas on “Newland 2084” high pressure DME pipelines, which transport and supply the world’s dimethyl ether market with safe, oxygen transported pure hydrocarbons.   There exist 2016 Newland Coop industrial process patent claims, pursuant to the gasification process flow diagram shown below and the surrounding industries that emerge therefrom. This information is only available to members with signed non-disclosure agreements.

This post is a foundation element of the emerging “Newland 2084” story. It is the first blog entry at https://newlandcoop.com/2016/06/22/dme_industry/ at Newland Coop.

What Is Dimethyl Ether (DME)?

Dimethyl ether, known as DME, is the simplest ether. It consists of two methyl groups bonded to a central oxygen atom. The absence of carbon-carbon bonds limits carbonaceous particulate emissions. DME (CH3OCH3) is the end product of a biomass and coal gasification process. The DME component syngas is produced by such technologies as the Fischer-Tropsch process. DME can also be produced from natural gas, should an affordable supply be locally available.

DME must be stored under pressure as a liquid similar to LPG (liquefied petroleum gas). Dimethyl ether is also relatively non-toxic, although it is highly flammable. DME is used as a clean burning fuel. DME has a high enough cetane number to perform well in internal combustion engines. DME is used as a useful precursor of sticky polymers, solid plastics, and other organic compounds. DME is a safe aerosol propellant alternative to chlorofluorocarbons, which destroy the ozone layer.

DME Production

The following diagram depicts the overall process of converting biomass and coal to dimethyl ether. Biomass includes carbon rich sources like waste oil, tires, fuel, construction waste, household garbage, sewage, diseased animals, biological waste, burned forest timber, and a vast list of materials containing recoverable carbon.

DME_Process_diagram

(Public Domain, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=9715681)

DME Consumption

The DME Industry incorporates both the producer and the consumer side of the DME market.

DME Safe Aerosol Propellant

Dimethyl ether (DME) is increasingly used in propellants to replace chlorofluorocarbons, which are found to destroy the ozone layer of the atmosphere. DME demand increases in aerosol-based household products like colognes, hair sprays, antiperspirants, room air fresheners, and so forth.

DME Precursor Chemical

DME is used to prepare many important chemical, like dimethyl sulfate, which is used as a solvent, anti-oxidation agent in polymers, and as an electrolyte in high energy lithium batteries.

DME Clean Fuel

DME is an ultra-clean transportation fuel. DME has a high cetane value of about 55-60 and is used as an ultraclean alternative fuel for diesel engines. The advantages of using DME are ultralow emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), reduced engine noise, requires no exhaust after treatment, and its high diesel thermal efficiency.

DME HxCyOz Chemical Economy

DME is the HxCyOz foundation of the petrochemical products industry. DME yields synthetic polymer chains. Most commonly, the continuously linked backbone of a polymer used for the preparation of plastics consists mainly of carbon atoms. A simple example is polyethylene (‘polythene’ in British English), whose repeating unit is based on ethylene monomer.

DME Solvents, Thermoplastics, Gas Separation Membranes, etc.

Polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether (PEG DME) is used in products like solvents, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, healthcare products, cleaning, plasticizers, gas separation membranes. Thermoplastics include materials and products like compact discs, thin films, food packaging, nylon and other fibers, plexiglass, plastic bottles, and countless examples from the vast plastics industry, that is so omnipresent in this modernizing age.

DME HxCyOz Periodic Table Economy

Eventually it becomes apparent that every significant part of the periodic table of elements combines with hydrocarbons in some manner. It’s all good, because once the human species figures out everything that interacts with carbon, as either a component or a catalyst, a revolution in microbiological and nanotechnology solutions will unfold. Whole new ways of harvesting the periodic table of elements, as will innovative ways of combining elements in carbon nanotube assemblies.

Imagine industries emerging from the carbon nanotube revolution in materials science. The technology that emerges, from the fusion of mathematics and the science of carbon nanotechnology intersecting the periodic table of elements. What emerges from all of this, is the most profound game changer in the lives of the Post Ice Age humans.

Carbon Economy

The atoms of carbon upon the earth’s surface comprise a new and emerging economy. that is a new measure of the wealth of the carbon of life, brought forth upon the earth .

References Material

http://www.ohio.edu/people/lees1/DME.html

The best resource around on current and future ways to consume DME. Wander around the website and be awestruck.

http://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/states/polymers.html

Polymers and plastics education series.

Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimethyl_ether

Dimethyl ether (DME), also known as methoxymethane, is the organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3, simplified to C2H6O. The simplest ether, it is a colorless gas that is a useful precursor to other organic compounds and an aerosol propellant and is being studied as a future energy option. It is an isomer of ethanol.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fischer%E2%80%93Tropsch_process

Describes a commonly used process used for gasifying carbon rich sources.

https://www.quora.com/How-do-I-blend-pure-diesel-and-dimethyl-ether-DME

This is an excellent quick read about the DME Industry.

By Lyno, June 22, 2016, Wednesday

 

 

Wall Transport

Wall Transportation Corridor

by Lyno, June 14, 2016,

440px-Hyperloop_capsule.svg
(public domain)

(public domain)

COST = $43 billion for a 2,000 mile long, south border 600 m.p.h. maglev train, capable of traveling from Brownsville, Texas to Imperial Beach, California in about 4 hours. The construction of the wall along the southern U.S. border creates a unique opportunity to open up a U.S. east / west corridor of commerce, north of the border. A similar opportunity exists for Mexico, to open up a symbiotic corridor of commerce, along the south side of the border. These economic effect of these corridors of commerce are enhanced by the existence of a high speed transportation system. This post describes a long term idea for an east / west transcontinental high speed train transportation corridor, built along the borders.

ADVISORY: This post is futuristic and contains technology ideas of a speculative nature. Everything is supposed to hang well enough together scientifically and mathematically to be plausible, based upon the thumbnail calculations of an amateur science and technology fan. Can a nanotechnology extrusion tool really construct a carbon fiber glass tube by crawling along inside the tube it just assembled? Will commercial quantity of plasmonic technology exist by 2030?

State of the Art in 2014

There is a vibration problem reported in current experimental high speed magnetic levitation transportation systems. The problems must be solved in time for the actual construction phase. Certainly the problems must be solved before the final system can be completed. Imagine the stability problems associated with flying a capsule down an air filled tube at speeds in excess of the speed of sound. The situation screams of laminar flow chaos.

Transport Capsule Stability Problems

From the realm of the scientific speculation emerges a question. What are the effects,  gyroscopic, inertial, centrifugal  and otherwise, of a magnetic field interacting with  spinning batteries charged full of electrons? The mathematics alone make the head spin. Perhaps interesting properties emerge from such an arrangement. Perhaps not. Batteries are necessary. Using electron spin to charge and discharge batteries is understood. Spinning the battery itself in a magnetic field is a decidedly novel idea. Maybe it is a nonsensical idea. Maybe it has already been done. Perhaps experimentation is in order. It’s just an idea. Newland Coop is a thinking ground, where new ideas appear to be exploited, in cyberpunk science fiction and reality.

Nanotechnology Constructed Glass Tube in 2030

Can a nanotechnology extrusion tool really construct a carbon fiber glass tube by crawling along inside the tube it just assembled? Will commercial quantity of plasmonic technology exist by 2030? Will it be a simple as directing the extrusion tool away from the earth’s surface. How far can an extrusion tool tipped glass tube get before the suspended weight becomes a problem? Could such such a self constructing tube span a river valley?

Glass Tube Construction

Returning to the conjectured glass tube that . It is constructed by nanotechnology surfaces moving on the inside of the tubes. During construction the weight of the machine applies leverage to a glass tube. The tube is constructed layer by layer, from the outside in. The is very strong  being a composite of carbon nanotube, polymer, silicon dioxide, with associated plasmonic photon / electron exchange layers. And through the glass tube flies the hyper express capsule at speeds limited by the human’s ability to withstand acceleration and deceleration forces, not to mention flying close to the ground at supersonic speeds.

Returning to present times. Constructing traditional bi-directional right away roadbed, would be sensible place to start. It is important to remember that we seek to building a corridor of commerce.

Security Provided by Wall

The pedestrian fence security provide security along the entire length of the north side of  border. The fence and its security systems provide a high level of deterrence and security, from illegals  human pedestrians walking across the border. The wall of water, where sensible, provides an additional deterrence to anyone trying to crash a vehicle through the fence. A wall of water 12′ wide and high imposes an additional deterrence to motorized traffic. The existence of east and west paired pneumatic assisted magnetic levitation tubes running upon, below, or above the surface of the earth provides an additional level of deterrence.

Magnetic Levitation Train

Within the realm of ultimate speeds, in the range of Mach .5 to 1.0 and higher, depending on the technology chosen, magnetic levitation is the obvious choice for the replacement of the interstate system, for long haul transportation of passengers and cargo, is the magnetic levitation train.

Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maglev  — Maglev (derived from magnetic levitation) is a transport method that uses magnetic levitation to move vehicles without touching the ground. With maglev, a vehicle travels along a guideway using magnets to create both lift and propulsion, thereby reducing friction by a great extent and allowing very high speeds.

Maglev trains move more smoothly and more quietly than wheeled mass transit systems. They are relatively unaffected by weather. The power needed for levitation is typically not a large percentage of its overall energy consumption; most goes to overcome drag, as with other high-speed transport. Maglev trains hold the speed record for trains.

Wikipedia Hyperloop at Average 600 mph

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperloop

Hyperloop is a tradename and a registered trademark of the Space Exploration Technologies Corporation for the high speed transportation of passengers and goods in tubes in which capsules are propelled by linear induction motors and air compressors.

Recently there has been a resurgence in interest in pneumatic tube transportation systems since being reintroduced using updated technologies, by Elon Musk, incorporating reduced-pressure tubes in which pressurized capsules ride on an air cushion driven by linear induction motors and air compressors.

The outline of the original Hyperloop concept was made public by the release of a preliminary design document in August 2013, which included a notional route running from the Los Angeles region to the San Francisco Bay Area, paralleling the Interstate 5 corridor for most of its length. Preliminary analysis indicated that such a route might obtain an expected journey time of 35 minutes, meaning that passengers would traverse the 350-mile (560 km) route at an average speed of around 600 mph (970 km/h), with a top speed of 760 mph (1,200 km/h). Preliminary cost estimates for the LA–SF notional route were included in the white paper—US$6 billion for a passenger-only version, and US$7.5 billion for a somewhat larger-diameter version transporting passengers and vehicles—although transportation analysts doubted that the system could be constructed on that budget.

The cost $7.5 billion for 350 miles cost estimate would put the price tag for the 2,000 mile south border maglev train at around $43 billion.

Once the passenger arrives at their Hyperloop destination, how do they get to their final destination? An associated local area self driving vehicles are explored in the Commuter Coop https://newlandcoop.com/2016/05/26/commuter-coop/ article.

Procure the Border Right-of-Way

While the U.S. is obtaining the right-of-way for the wall, it must procure all the necessary rights-of-way, at once. The right-of way required for the border corridor varies with each locale. The one universal is the pedestrian fence or some other equal deterrent. Each border illegal and legal crossing section is made more secure by electronic surveillance and communications devices, placed high above the ground, atop tall poles or towers.

The Wall of Water can be made of concrete, steel, or plastic pipe. The choice pretty much depends on price of materials, costs to haul, and so forth. The final assembly is done with bolting, welding, and gluing parts together.

The truck cargo width and height restrictions are minimal with an international border transportation corridor, for obvious reasons. Therefore, fabricating and hauling a 12′ wide, or wider, and shaped 24′ tall or taller section of plastic water pipe is not out of the question.

When needed, electricity is captured in abundance by solar cells, wind generators, methane fuel cells, an so forth.

Fill The U.S. Border Corridor

This section considers a broad range of systems usable within sections of the corridor. Some are suitable for the transcontinental corridor opened by the construction of the wall. It is easy to imagine the numbers of east and west border travelers who would love to travel upon the ground in human and cargo transportation from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific Ocean and back in about eight hours, at six hundred miles per hour.

    • Above the overall structure can fly tethered balloon and similar observation platforms, capable of detecting by sight and by the sounds approaching vehicles and pedestrians.
    • The ideal top corridor layer typically go the long haul, twin east and west maglev track assemblies. Once a section of the maglev has been completed, it can be used to transport passengers and materials to and among the connected construction sites. Being on an upper level provides a visual experience for those travelers seek vista car seating in a train traveling just under the speed of sound. It may also provide additional safety features, like harmonic dampening construction techniques. At high speed, maglev moves mass faster over short haul and long haul distances, at costs per ton mile lower than airplanes. The Newland South Wall Coop distributes its share of the gross income from this operation among its members, according the factors affecting their income share, in proportion to numerous patronage factors, including Newland™ time investments.
    • The potable water supply pipelines contain the premium water in the pipeline. Clean water producers receive a share of income, each according to their contribution to the whole. Clean water consumers pay according volume, at costs determined by the LivingVote of the members of the Newland South Wall Coop.
    • Similar considerations apply to the agricultural quality water.
    • Inverse considerations apply to the waste sludge transported by the anaerobic pipeline.  Those who supply the carbon waste pay in inverse proportion to the cleanness of the carbon supplied.

Texas Problem

There are miles of gaps between segments and openings in the fence itself. As a result of the Secure Fence Act passed in 2006, the government built some 650 miles of wall along the 1,954-mile U.S.-Mexico boundary. While 1,254 miles of that border is in Texas, the state has only some 100 miles of wall.

The Texas-Mexico Border Wall site has useful maps, like the following Army Corp of Engineers map.us-army-coe-map jpeghttps://law.utexas.edu/humanrights/borderwall/maps/background-maps.html

A 2009 analysis by the GAO found that the cost of pedestrian fencing ranged between $400,000 and $15 million per mile with an average of $3.9 million a mile. The price of less expensive vehicle fencing ran anywhere from $200,000 to $1.8 million a mile, for an average of $1 million a mile.

With cost differences like this, the obvious answer is to build the less expensive sections first. The same philosophy goes for the construction costs of maglev trains. At a cost of $43 billion for a transcontinental subsonic maglev capsule track system, that would dwarf the other costs of putting in vehicle and pedestrian fences, wall of water, and the DME pipeline. Polymers, plastics, composites, alloys, nanotechnology, and so forth are, each one is a game changer in transportation systems.

Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maglev says

The United States Federal Railroad Administration, in a 2005 report to Congress, estimated cost per mile of between $50m and $100m. The Maryland Transit Administration (MTA) Environmental Impact Statement estimated a price tag at US$4.9 billion for construction, and $53 million a year for operations of its project.